What Were Jumano Houses Like?

Native Americans of the Jumano tribe lived in pueblos, stick huts, and teepees. According to historian R. Edward Moore, the Texan Pueblan Jumanos resided in two- and three-story mud-brick structures. According to the Texas State Historical Society, the Pueblan Jumanos of New Mexico constructed their pueblos out of wood and reeds as opposed to bricks. The Plains Jumanos were nomads who inhabited tipis.

As with other pueblo-dwelling Native American tribes, the Pueblan Jumanos were agriculturalists and did not move regularly in pursuit of game. The masonry pueblos offered protection from wild animals and comfort during cold evenings. They were elevated constructions with a network of retractable ladders for access. When the Jumanos dragged their ladders up and into the pueblos, it became nearly impossible for raiders and aggressive settlers to enter the constructions.

During the day, R. Edward Moore recounts, Jumano women sat outside under enormous animal-hide awnings, pounding grain and cooking tortillas. They cooked their food in earthenware ovens known as hornos, which were constructed of smaller bricks similar to those in the pueblos. Male Jumanos, according to Texas Beyond History, hunted game animals. They favoured buffalo.

The Prairies Jumanos did not build permanent colonies. They lived in transient settlements consisting of tee-pees and relocated at least once per season in search of edible plants and game animals. According to R. Edward Moore, these Jumanos also promoted commerce with native tribes in Texas, Oklahoma, and Mississippi. In general, Jumano women remained in their villages, harvesting crops and caring for their children. In addition, they weaved the baskets Jumano men used to transport trade goods across Texas and Oklahoma. The Jumano utilised dog teams to transport their products.

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