Grass and shrubs are the primary producers (plants) in the savanna food web. Herbivores such as giraffes, zebras, elephants, gazelles, wildebeests, and warthogs are the principal consumers. Leopards, lions, and cheetahs are carnivores, whereas vultures, termites, and hyenas are scavengers. Decomposers consist of fungi, insects, and microbes.
The savanna, or African grassland, is characterised by a complex food web dependent on movement patterns that follow water and food sources. A direct food chain may look like this: a zebra eats grass before being consumed by a lion, which is subsequently consumed by vultures and hyenas when it dies. Once the food chain reaches the decomposers, it begins anew with insects and mushrooms nourishing plants. Some animals, such as aardvarks, birds, and small lizards, also eat insects. On the food chain, a hyena is both a carnivore and a scavenger.
With few trees, the savanna biome is characterised by tall grasses and shrubs. Herbivores consume producers, and then herbivores are consumed by carnivores in a healthy ecosystem with no holes in the food chain. These carnivores are then devoured by scavengers and decomposers, who provide food to producers. Each level of feeding in the food chain is referred to as a trophic level.