To identify Limoges china designs, look for marks under and on the glaze, the place of origin, factory marks such as AE, GDA, and H & CO/L, and tiny prints and pictograms on the object. Additionally, note any family names and the colours used to distinguish them.
On whiteware, there are markings beneath the glaze that were applied prior to glazing or painting. These marks are typically more distinct than those applied on the glaze. The names of the sellers, importers, and designers were stamped on the bottoms of these products.
If France is listed as the nation of origin, the Limoges item was likely manufactured and exported after 1891. Use a magnifying glass to identify the minute prints and pictographs, such as a star surrounding the word Limoges printed in a circle, France as the underscore, and a crown with a royal cypher.
The AE mark denotes that the item was manufactured by the Allund factory between 1797 and 1868. The CHF/GDM, CHF, and CH Field Haviland Limoges marks indicate that the piece was manufactured between 1868 and 1898 by a Haviland-owned factory in Allund. Limoges chinaware manufactured after 1898 bears one of the following manufacturing marks: GDA; H & CO/L; H & CO/Depose; Porcelaine, Haviland & Co. Theodore Haviland was born in Limoges, France.
The presence of a family name indicates that the Limoges item was produced by family-owned enterprises or by tiny artists. Such names include of Elite France, M. Redon, C. Ahrenfeldt, and A. Lanternier. Between 1900 and 1914, Elite Works displayed its name in red, while between 1920 and 1932, the company utilised green.