Look for marks beneath and on the glaze, the nation of origin, factory marks like AE, GDA, and H & CO/L, as well as little prints and pictograms on the object to identify Limoges china patterns. Observe any family names as well as any colours used to designate them.
On the whiteware, there are marks that were made before the item was painted or given a glaze. Compared to marks made on the glaze, these tend to be clearer. Retailers, importers, and decorators who put their names on the bottoms of the objects stamped the latter.
The Limoges piece was produced and exported after 1891 if France is listed as the country of origin. With the use of a magnifying lens, you can make out the little prints and pictographs, including the star around the word Limoges printed in a circle, the underscore for France, and the crown with a royal cypher.
The item was produced by the Allund factory between 1797 and 1868, according to the production mark AE. The CHF/GDM, CHF, and CH Field Haviland Limoges marks indicate that the item was produced between 1868 and 1898 at an Allund factory that belonged to Haviland. One of the following factory markings can be found on Limoges china produced after 1898: GDA, H & CO/L, H & CO/Depose, Porcelaine, Haviland & Co. Limoges, and Theodore Haviland, Limoges, France.
The presence of a family name indicates that tiny artisans or family-run companies produced the Limoges object. Elite France, M. Redon, C. Ahrenfeldt, and A. Lanternier are a few examples of such names. Between 1900 and 1914, Elite Works utilised red, and between 1920 and 1932, it used green.